Forum AM Science - part 2


Location: CongressCenter, ground floor, Room Carl Zeiss left

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08:30 - 09:30
09:30 - 09:35
Welcome Carl-Zeiss Saal
09:35 - 10:30

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is an emerging manufacturing technology in the Oil and Gas (O&G)
industry and offers a high potential for significant innovations. This new manufacturing technology
is being actively used and applied in all industry segments (fullstream) of the O&G industry, such as
the exploration of reservoirs by latest drilling and evaluation tools and production (upstream), the
transportation and storage of goods (midstream), as well as refining and industrial power processing
(downstream). In addition, a digital revolution is being driven to modernize the O&G industry by
optimizing operations thru the power of data and analytics.
In comparison to other industries such as medical and aviation, the experience level of additively
manufactured components in O&G is still relatively low. Due to industry specific requirements, which
are different ormore challenging than other industries, current developed and qualifiedmaterials for
AM cannot always be used. High static and dynamic loads, corrosion as well as abrasion and erosion
are significant challenges for all materials. A high reliability of services as well as meeting all
standards of Health, Safety and Environmental is the key in the operational field at the customer site.
The young AM technology needs to overcome all these challenges and needs to be applicable at high
pressure of productivity and cost efficiency.
Due to numerous opportunities of AM, Baker Hughes, a GE company has focused significantly on key
advantages of this technology in product design. The process and material development and its
qualification for production have been the main focus over the last years to enable production of
additive manufactured goods. Enabling new designs, the ability to manufacture new materials and
alloy families, as well as the opportunity to significantly reduce product development time by shorten
multiple design iterations have all been benefits that have found success in the applying this
technology. Furthermore, local satellite production opportunities at decentralized manufacturing
hubs will enable to ability of short lead times even in outlying regions. Thus, AM is an important
technology in the O&G industry and is seen as an elementary part of innovation to bring energy to
the world.

Keynote 3
Christoph Wangenheim | Baker Hughes, a GE Company

Christoph Wangenheim hat Maschinenbau an der Leibniz Universität Hannover im
Diplomstudiengang studiert und diesen erfolgreich Ende 2008 abgeschlossen. Nach einem
Direkteinstieg als Fertigungsingenieur bei Baker Hughes in Celle, beschäftigt HerrWangenheim sich
seit 2012 mit der additiven Fertigung von metallischen Komponenten. Während eines Expat
Aufenthaltes für zwei Jahre imHeadquarter von Baker Hughes in Houston hat HerrWangenheimdie
additive Fertigung federführend im Konzern innerhalb einer internationalen Gruppe an zwei
Standorten (Houston und Celle) aufgebaut und geleitet. Seit Mitte 2016 ist Herr Wangenheim am
einem der größten Technologie Standorte in Celle für die additiven Fertigungstechnologien seitens
der Entwicklung, Material Qualifikation, Design und der Produktion von metallischen und
nichtmetallischen Komponenten für die Produktlinie Drilling Services verantwortlich.

10:30 - 11:00
Session 3
Presentation: Dr.-Ing. Andreas Wegner, AM Polymer Research UG
11:00 - 11:30

Laser sintering is a powder-based additive processing technology, that has significant potential to reach the status of an additive manufacturing technology. The process reliability and component quality depend, among other things, upon layer generation. The effects of parameters, which have yet to be examined, and their influence on obtainable packing densities are investigated in correlation with the surface roughness on a self-developed laser sintering machine at the department of Production Engineering at the University of Duisburg-Essen. In commercial lasers sintering systems, it is often the case that the rotation speed of the powder applicator is maintained at a fixed ratio in regard to the translation speed. In other cases, a fixed blade with a defined geometry is utilized as the powder applicator. The adjustable parameters of the commercial systems are usually very limited, which results in difficulties for user optimization in powder application and the resulting component properties. In a custom-built machine, the rotational and translational movements of the roller are decoupled; thus, allowing each movement to be independently operated. For comparability of both application systems, the roller can be replaced by a blade. Through this study, only the rotation speed of the roller varies, while the translation speed is set to the standard value of 127 mm/s. The results show a disproportional increase in packing density as a function of the resulting speed at the tangential surface of the coating system. In addition, a direct comparison between the two commercial coating systems emphasize their different potential for improvements. For comparison, a DTM 2500 (3D- Systems) is used, which is equipped with a counter rotating roller.

Lecture 3/1
Lars Meyer | Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lehrstuhl Fertigungstechnik
11:30 - 12:00

The selective laser sintering (SLS) of thermoplastics is on the way from pure prototyping to the production of small batches. In particular, the plastic com-ponents made of polyamide 12 (PA12) play an essential role. In addition to the challenges of the process, the material-specific requirements must be taken into account when processing plastics. The most important require-ments for the powder are the bulk density and the particle size distribution and shape. The powder bed in turn has significant influence on the component properties. The bulk density is usually analyzed according to DIN EN ISO 60 "Determination of the Apparent Density of Molding Compounds that can Flow Through a Standardized Hopper (Bulk Density)". The component density in the process depends, among other things, on the powder application system (doctor blade or roller), on the process parameters (part bed temperature and energy density), as well as on the component position. For this reason, closed cylindrical specimens with different diameters and wall thicknesses are pro-duced in the SLS process in order to characterize the powder bed inside the component. The scientific aim of this study is to derive the packing density of the powder bed by means of 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT). As a re-sult, it was found that the packing density increases significantly with increas-ing wall thickness with small geometry. Due to the shrinking of the specimens, the particles in the cylinders were compressed.

Lecture 3/2
Meng Zhao | Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Lehrstuhl für Kunststofftechnik

Work Experience
Since 09.2013
Scientific assistant Institute of Polymer Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
? In the Collaborative Research Center 814 – Additive Manufacturing
? Part Project A3: process-adapted material characterization for selective beam melting processes

12:00 - 12:30

A new approach of laser sintering for the fabrication of multi-material polymer parts is investigated by means of a thermal simulation model. The process bases on the simultaneous energy input for preheating and melting of a multi-material polymer powder pattern inside a laser sintering machine. The basis for the developed Finite Element simulation tool is the nonlinear heat equation including temperature dependent functions for the heat capacity and heat conduction which were obtained by measurements. The simulation is used for verifying experimental investigations of the temporal temperature distribution of the powder bed and the part cake including the thermoplastics polyamide 12 and polypropylene during the simultaneous energy input in order to value the influence of different process and material parameters. Thus, the results show that differences in latent heat affect the temporal temperature distribution and thus the process significantly.

Lecture 3/3
Dr. Thomas Stichel | Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH
12:30 - 14:00
Lunch break and visit to the trade show
Session 4
Presentation: Prof. Dr. Gerd Witt, Universität Duisburg-Essen
14:00 - 14:30

As different branches of industry use Laser Beam Melting (LBM) for diverse applications, this technology is in focus as production technology. However, LBM is limited to producing parts consisting of one material due to the delivery concept realized in most LBM-machines so far. Therefore, a new powder application concept was developed at Fraunhofer IGCV making it possible to allocate two materials within one layer. Thus, 3-D-Multimaterial parts with an arbitrary distribution of two materials within one part can be built.
The scope of this paper are the new challenges in the Multi-Material-LBM-process resulting from different material properties such as different thermal and thermo-mechanical properties. Furthermore, mechanical properties of multi-material-parts from copper-chrome-zirconia and tool steel 1.2709 are shown.

Lecture 4/1
Christine Anstätt | Fraunhofer IGCV

Christine Anstätt was born 17.10.1988 in Augsburg. From 2008 to 2011 she studied at the TU Chemnitz Sports Engineering in the Bachelor. This was followed by a change in the master's degree program in Mechanical Engineering focusing on Product development. The Master thesis entitled "Potential analysis on the use of shear fields in lightweight Lattice structures" was at the Project Group Resource-Efficient Mechatronic Processing Machines (RMV) Fraunhofer IWU in Augsburg. 2014 Ms. Anstätt completed the studies successfully.
Since August 2014 Ms. Anstätt is a research assistant in the project group RMV of IWU in Augsburg within the department of components and processes. In the field of additive manufacturing she deals with lightweight construction and the multi-material processing.
Besides her work as a research assistant she is doing her PhD at the Technical University of Munich regarding "multi-material processing in the additive manufacturing ".

14:30 - 15:00

Amorphous solidification of metallic melts enables unique combinations of high strength, elasticity and hardness. Established methods to produce Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMG) suffer from massive limitations in terms of manufac-turable size and geometric freedom. Laser Beam Melting is due to process-inherent high cooling rates, in conjunction with a layerwise processing, a promising method to produce large and complex BMG-parts. In the present study, the possibility of processing a Zr-Based-Alloy (????????59,3????????28,8????????10,4????????1,5) with an EOS M100 is determined. For this purpose, the influences of selected process parameters, such as laser power and scanning speed, on the pro-cessability and defects (cracks, pores and crystallization) are investigated. The resulting microstructure is analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffrac-tion and DSC. The results indicate that laser beam melting is suitable for a future production route of Zr-based BMG components.

Lecture 4/2
Jan Wegner | Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lehrstuhl Fertigungstechnik
15:00 - 15:30

To date, components with lattice structures have been used primarily as demonstrators instead of load-bearing elements of components actually in use, although the mechanical properties of lattice structures can be varied within wide limits. However, the properties of lattice structures are extremely sensitive to deviations from the nominal geometry. The finer the structures become, the more the resulting geometry will depend on the exposure strategy and exposure parameters. The exposure strategy currently used for full material with a distinction between contour and filling (CH exposure) is unsuitable for the manufacturing of thin struts (? < 400 ?m). With the point exposure (P-exposure) significantly smaller strut diameters (? < 150 ?m) can be produced compared to the conventional exposure strategy.
Due to limitations of the machine software, the P-exposure is usually not usable with commercially available LBM systems. Therefore, a quasi-P-exposure is used in this work, which represents points by single short scan vectors. For this purpose, a special slicer is developed that can generate the required scan vectors within a component for both P-exposed lattice structures and full material sections.
In order to investigate the relationship between scan vectors, laser parameters and the resulting strut diameters, the strut thicknesses are measured on test specimens. Furthermore, the microstructure for estimating the expected mechanical properties is investigated.

Lecture 4/3
Hannes Korn | Fraunhofer IWU

During my mechanical engineering studies at TU Dresden I deepened "methods and tools of product development" and intensified
software development in the context of mechanical engineering, especially for the analysis of triangle-mesh-based data.
Since October 2016, I have been working on innovative application scenarios and the tailored production of fine-tuned metallic
lattice structures on conventional laser beam melting equipment, initially as part of my diploma thesis, now as a research
associate at the Fraunhofer IWU in Dresden.
In addition, I continue to bring my experience in software engineering to the development of AM-specific Software solutions.